Under IA-CEPA, 99% of Australian products (by value) will arrive in Indonesia duty-free or under significantly improved preferential regimes. IA-CEPA will also support stronger value chains between the Australian and Indonesian businesses and ensure that Australia is well positioned to deepen economic cooperation and boost Indonesia`s growth. It will also give a significant boost to a number of service sectors, including education, training, tourism, finance, mining and energy, and will put in place new mechanisms to eliminate non-tariff barriers. Negotiations were difficult, starting in 2013 and then stagnating until 2016. The two sides concluded the agreement in 2018. China`s actions highlight IA-CEPA. The agreement includes provisions for Australian barley under its TRQ for feed grains. Indonesia will allow imports of up to 500 kt of barley for one year after entry into force, which will increase in the coming years. .